Motherboard is usually a panel on which several components are housed. Some of the main functional blocks that drive computer functions are:


Central processing unit (CPU): Computer Processing Unit or Processor is considered as brain of computer and it deals with every complex tasks at the input. When it is put to use, the CPU gets overheated. In order to cool it down, sink is put in the circuit for heat dissipation.

Basic Input Output System (BIOS): Basic Input Output System (BIOS), is a set of programs specifically written to boot the operating system, and enables hardware setup. The entire process is done by Power on Self Test, POST, programs.

Random Access Memory (RAM): Memory Module contains Random Access Memory (RAM) that came in earlier stages as Single Inline Memory Module (SIMM), and Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM) was a later development.

Cache Memory: Cache memory plays a significant role when the processor is engaged in computing simple or complex tasks. It stores all information that is more often used on the main memory and provides such information whenever necessary in the data accession. This cache action reduces average processing time. CPU fetches this small and faster memory piece when compared to RAM for greater operational reliability.
 
Bus Expansion Slots: Bus is a circuit that interconnects different parts of the motherboard and multiple buses when deployed, improvises the computational speed. So, additional slots are provided on the motherboard such as ISA, VESA, and PCI slots.
 
On-board I/O Connectors: In order to enable perfect connector on board at input/output, computer systems are fitted with two serial ports (COM1, COM2), and parallel ports (LPT1, LPT2).
 
On-board IDE Connectors: These connectors are meant for connecting drives such as Hard Disk Drive (HDD), CD Drives, Floppy Disk Drive etc.,

Numerous progressions have happened in the development of motherboard hardware on which computer parts are laid and the invention of the USB has curtailed the usage of extension cards to a minimum level, users do move around for video cards, sound cards. Alongside innovation redesign, motherboard got changed no less than 4 times and they are XT, AT, Baby AT and ATX. Each contrasts from other in the utilization of attachments, spaces, connectors, ports and kind of processors it obliges.

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